Need-For-Touch, Product Innovativeness, Gender and Product Knowledge: A Contextual Study on Consumers in Saudi Arabia

Abdulelah Althagafi1,2 Mahmood Ali3, Hasan Balfaqih1 , 1College of Business Administration, University of Business and Technology, Jeddah 21448, Saudi Arabia. 2Glasgow School for Business & Society, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom. 3The Institute of Business Management, Karachi, Pakistan. Corresponding author:  a.althagafi@ubt.edu.sa 

This study extends earlier research on the role of Need-For-Touch on consumer behaviour. To be more precise, it focuses on investigating the role of product innovativenessopinion leadership, and consumer product-class knowledge in understanding consumer’s Need-For-Touch. A survey was conducted using a convenience sample of 128 males and 88 females, representing diverse demographics of Saudi Arabia, which was then analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The findings of this study contribute to consumer research, especially pre-choice aspects of consumer behaviour and attitudes, as well as consumer psychological market segmentation. The potential theoretical contribution of this study is reflected in the examination of new diverse relationships, which can be used as a basis for further studies. Moreover, the findings of this exploratory study will contribute significantly towards understanding consumer behaviour enabling accurate anticipation of consumer expectations and satisfying their inherent needs. Finally, a number of managerial implications for industry (packaging, communication and product-development) were suggested. Pages 1 to 10




Expression of Language and Culture Through Homecomers' (Travellers) Funny Memes

Sariah1, Jatmika Nurhadi2, 1Balai Bahasa Provinsi Jawa Barat, 2Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

This study aims to describe language and cultural expressions in the funny memes of travellers. The research data were collected by taking pictures and taking notes. The data were analysed using descriptive qualitative methods and the theory of semantics and cultural values. We collected data from the photographs of travellers passing through the north coast of Java (Pantura, Pamanukan, Subang) and funny memes from travellers online. The results showed that language expression was manifested in a single theme using: sound language, metaphors in metaphorical language style, metonymy, euphemism, and disagreement with polysemy. In contrast, cultural expression manifested in the Javanese language, filial piety, and age of marriage. Language expression is dominated by metaphors and polysemy, while marriage age dominates cultural terms, and still single with entertaining humour. Pages 11 to 34




The Participation of Social Organisation in the Building of New Rural Areas in Vietnam

Nguyen Trong Binha, Academy of Politics Region IV, Can Tho City, Vietnam, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6009-4983, Email: trongbinh195@yahoo.com

Traditional public administration theory considers that the government is the sole agent in public governance, then public governance theory considers public governance as well as the process of public policy as an active interaction of many centers, mainly government - businesses and society (social organisations and citizens).  The building of new rural areas is one of the important policies aimed at the comprehensive development of agriculture and rural areas and improving the quality of life of rural Vietnamese residents. This policy is directly and in many ways related to the lives of people in rural areas. Therefore, it is very necessary for the participation of people as well as social organisations as representative organisations of the people. The participation of people and social organisations in the building of new rural areas in Vietnam is an important factor contributing to the public purpose of new rural construction policy, as well as a contributing factor to promote social resources in rural development. Based on theoretical frameworks and survey results, this study assesses the current status of the participation of social organisations in the building of new rural areas in Vietnam.At the same time, it provides suggestions to increase the participation of social organisations in the building of new rural areas in Vietnam. Pages 35 to 51




The Internal Factors Determining the Financial Performance of Islamic Banks

Monia Ben Ltaifaa, Hany A Salehb, Abdelkader Derbalic*, aDepartment of Administrative and Financial Programs, Community College in Abqaiq, King Faisal University, Abqaiq, Saudi Arabia, bAssistant Professor of Insurance and Actuarial Sciences, Department of Applied Statistics and Insurance, Faculty of Commerce, Mansoura University, Egypt, cDepartment of Finance and Accounting, Higher Institute of Informatics and Management of Kairouan, Kairouan University, Kairouan, Tunisia and Department of Administrative and Financial Sciences and Techniques, Community College, Taibah University, Medinah, Saudi Arabia, Email: ambenltaifa@kfu.edu.sa, bhanyhakeem2000@gmail.com, c*aderbalicctu@gmail.com

Financial performance is a crucial factor of the permanence and safety of the banking sector of each country. This paper investigates the influence of factors specific to Islamic banking activity on their financial performance. To study the impact of factors specific to banking activity on financial performance, we use a sample of 50 Islamic banks working and existing in 12 countries. We adopt a measurable and quantifiable method defensible by the econometrics of panel data throughout the period of study from the last quarter of 2013 to the third quarter of 2019. The empirical results of this paper demonstrate the existence of a very significant nexus among all the explicative variables and the dependent variable as ensured by the Return on Asset (ROA). Certainly, the financial performance of selected Islamic banks is positively associated with two variables such as bank size and liquidity while it is negatively affected by three variables such as bank capitalisation, asset quality and operational efficiency. The objective of this paper is to get the attention of managers in Islamic banks to see the importance of understanding these factors that could directly or indirectly influence the performance of banks. Studying the impact of these determinants helps to facilitate and guide strategic decisions aimed at achieving improved performance of Islamic banks. Pages 52 to 64




Unravelling the Nexus Between CEO Characteristics and Financial Performance in Pakistani Listed Firms

Abdul Rehmana, Ji Cheng Junb, Alam Rehmanc, Muhammad Zeeshand*, Muhammad Adeele, Kashif Saleemf, Shams Ur Rehmang, aCollege of Business Administration, Liaoning Technical University, Liaoning province, XingCheng, 125105, China, bProfessor at College of Business Administration, Liaoning Technical University, Liaoning province, XingCheng, 125105, China,  cFaculty of Management Sciences, National University of Modern Languages; Islamabad, Pakistan, dCollege of Business Administration, Liaoning Technical University, Liaoning province, XingCheng, 125105, China, *Corresponding Author, e,fAssistant professor Qurtuba University Science and Information Technology D I khan, gAssistant Professor Northern University Nowshera, Pakistan, Email: arehman51jb@gmail.com, bjichengjun@126.com, camrehman@numl.edu.pk, d*abobakarmzk1@gmail.com, eMuhammad.adeel@qurtuba.edu.pk, fkashifsaleem9212@gmail.com, gShams.mahsud@gmail.com

The empirical literature highlights the importance of CEO characteristics in the paradigm of firm’s performance. The CEO chair has been given considerable attention in the global competitive corporate environment. In view of this uprising importance of CEO chair, we investigate the case of 200 listed Pakistani firms to unravel the kind of nexus that does exists between CEO attributes and firm performance. We employ robust Panel Modeling Methodologies for analyzing data of these sample firms for the period 2010 to 2019. Our empirical estimations highlight that CEO tenure and duality are negatively associated with a firm’s performance in Pakistan. Likewise, female CEO, and non-national CEO are also considered not been the wise choice in Pakistani context. While CEO education substantiates the firm’s performance in Pakistan. Our results also report the significant contribution of insider promoted CEO to the firm’s performance. The results are expected to provide insight to the investors and corporate elite in the business environment of Pakistan, and countries with similar corporate culture as Pakistan. Pages 65 to 91




The Psycholinguistic and Neurolinguistic Nature of Communications and Education in Early Development of Bi/Multilingual Autistic Children

1Olumuyiwa Adekunle Kehinde, 2Berrington Ntombela, 3Caroll Hermann, 1-2Department of English, University of Zululand South Africa, 3Department of Psychology, University of Zululand South Africa.

Poorly developed joint attention and communicative acts during early childhood may result in poorer interactional language development. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge of parents and educators of preschool and school-aged autistic children about the nature and cognitive benefits of joint attention, and raising these children with bi/multilingualism using the psycholinguistic and neurolinguistics bases of language acquisition, language production, language comprehension and neurocognition respectively. The participants were bi/multilingual parents (n-10) and bi/multilingual educators (n-10) from 4 schools purposively selected from Empangeni and Durban in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.Data was collected through semi-structured interviews from which anecdotes and lived experiences were also drawn. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. The findings established that many parents developed poor joint attention with their children during infancy, and communications or interactions with their autistic children at home even when they are literate or bi/multilingual due to prior advice from the clinicians or speech therapists or lack of such advice to use bi/multilingualism. The research also found a higher percentage of educators employed one language (isiZulu) when teaching and communicating with children with autism at school. The findings indicated that a larger percentage of parents and educators of children with ASD have little or no understanding that many autistic children (especially those without intellectual disabilities) have the cognitive ability to acquire, produce, and comprehend two or more languages by incorporating bi/multilingualism; and  that  joint and shared attention while involved in communicative acts during early childhood, and the school-age of these children is an essential cognition booster. Pages 92 to 106




Public-Private Sector Partnerships in Healthcare System Delivery for Developmental Disorders in Sub-Sahara Africa

Olumuyiwa Adekunle Kehindea, Chinaza Uleanyab, aUniversity of Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, bUniversity of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa Email: bchinazauleanya@yahoo.com

Developmental disorders prevalently caused by infections, perinatal complications, genetic problems, nutritional deficiencies, traumas, amongst others have been on the rise and make children to be at the verge of grave health challenges in the African continent. It has been a norm seeing the government being at the centre or being instrumental to healthcare system delivery with enormous for-profit private partnership and meagre voluntary services. Thus, this study explored the nature and status of government and a network of private stakeholders’ involvement in delivering healthcare to developmental disorders’ domain in selected sub-Sahara African countries. The study adopted participatory governance as a theoretical thrust. A qualitative method was adopted for the study. Hence, semi-structured interviews and desktop research method were adopted for data collection. Purposive sampling was adopted for selection of the 21 participants. The interviews were coded, and themes were generated, and analysed using content analysis. The findings of the study showed that the government remains a main policymaker for the provision of healthcare in African countries and relying mostly on a few profit-oriented stakeholders whose aims mainly focus on general healthcare services without or with less attention to developmental disorders. It is recommended that the government should incorporate a wide network of private stakeholders whose participatory level needs to be raised through adequate awareness, motivation, monitoring and evaluation. Pages 107 to 128




A Comparative Analysis of Instructional Strategies in Middle-Grade Mathematics Textbooks

Dr. Safdar Hussain1*, Dr. Muhammad Anwer 2*, Dr. Nagina Gul3, Dr Mudassir Hussain4, Dr. S Khurram Khan Alwi5, 1*Department of Educational Development, Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Pakistan, 2Principal Special Education Department, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, 3Assistant Professor Department of Management Sciences, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering & Management Sciences (BUITMES), Quetta, Pakistan, 4Assistant Professor, Department of Education and Research, University of Lakki Mawat, KPK Pakistan. 5Adjunct Professor, Dr. S Khurram Khan Alwi, SZABIST, Karachi Pakistan. Email: 1safdar_tla@yahoo.com, 2dr.manwer19@gmail.com, 3nagina.gul@buitms.edu.pk, 4mudassirokz@gmail.com, 5dr.Khurram.khan@szabist.pk

This study compared the quality of instructional activities of three series of selected middle- grade mathematics textbooks used in public and private schools in Pakistan. The aim was to analyse the extent to which the quality of instructional activities was appropriate for the development of mathematical proficiency in students. Geometry was selected for this study due to its challenging nature in mathematics curriculum. The procedure included the development of researched-based learning goals and indicators and, identification of evidences in textbooks relevant to the learning goals. These evidences were then compared with the indicators to check their appropriateness for the promotion of proficiency in geometry. The results showed that the New Syllabus Mathematics 2 contained comparatively effective instructional activities to support students in understanding key conceptual ideas in geometry. Mathematics 8 and COUNTDOWN contained less material for conceptual understanding and procedural fluency. These textbooks were focusing mostly on routine procedures with few connections to daily life. The results of this study will have greater significance for curriculum developers, textbook authors, textbook analysis experts and school administrators. Pages 129 to 147




Exploring the Needs of Compulsory Health Education in Schools as Core Curriculum Requirement: Evidence from Turbat, Balochistan

Mahnaz Aslama, Dr. Kamal Haiderb, Prof. Dr. Muhammad Yousuf Sharjeelc, Dr. Safia Niazid, Rabia Ashrafe, Shehzad Haiderf, aAssistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Turbat, bAssistant Professor, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Department of Teacher Education-Abdul Haq Campus, c Professor in Education, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Department of Teacher Education-Gulshan Campus, dAssistant Professor, Department of Education, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University-Lyari, eLecturer, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Department of Education-Abdul Haq Campus, fLecturer,Department of Education,LUAWMS Email:amahnazbaloch1313@gmail.com,bkmhrpk@gmail.com, cyousufsharjeel@hotmail.com,ddr.safianiazi@gmail.com, fwarriors.uthal@gmail.com

The closure of schools in the recent COVID-19 pandemic made every parent concerned regarding their children’s health at school. Children are the most important and loved part of every parents’ life therefore their health is the utmost priority of parent’s. The purpose of this research was to describe the current secondary school student’s health status in Turbat district. Secondary school health is often an ignored subject in Pakistan.  Through effective school health education, students can be prevented from catching infectious diseases through preventative measures and making them adopt healthy lifestyles to protect them from several diseases. Countries around the globe have achieved significant outcomes through implementing effective school health programs. The Punjab health sector reform program achieved remarkable results. The samples for this study were n= 240 students from six different schools collected from three Girls’ High Schools and from three Boys’ High School. This descriptive study through a survey method narrated the health measures regarding needs of school-going children. For this purpose, the study adopted a quantitative research method for data collection. The participants were selected through convenience sampling method.  Data was collected from the participants through consent letters, self-administration of the tool and an online survey where ever possible from the registered schools in district Turbat in Baluchistan. The data was analyzed through SPSS V22. The study found that the provision of health requirements in school settings through a health promotion program can bring change in overall well-being of young school-going children. For a healthier and prosperous generation health requirement are required to promote and strengthen school health education. The Government of Pakistan needs to increase the investment on health and education integration. ۔ Thus, imitating a similar program in secondary schools in Turbat, Balochistan can bring fruitful lifelong results. Pages 148 to 161




Achievement Goal Orientation, Work Engagement and Organisational Commitment: A Correlational Study of University Teachers

Misbah Malik1, Ghulam Fatima2, Sara Azhar3, Muhammad Jahanzaib4, Khuda Bakhsh5, 1Assistant Professor, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: misbah.ier@pu.edu.pk 2Associate Professor, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Assistant Professor, Township Campus, University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan.4PhD Scholar, Department of Special Education, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan,5Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO) is considered as an important aspect of individuals’ mental faculties because of having the property of driving individuals’ thoughts, interpretations and reactions to a task, resulting in different patterns of behaviours to attain their goals.  This study was designed to identify the correlation among Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO), Work Engagement (WE) and Organisational Commitment (OC) of university teachers through a survey method. The sample of the study was 165 university teachers’ who were selected from two universities of the Lahore district. Multistage sampling technique was used. Two public and two private universities were selected randomly. Three instruments were used for data collection; one to measure AGO, second for OC and third for WE of university teachers. The correlation among AGO,WE and OC was identified through Pearson Product Moment. Independent sample t-tests were run to find out mean difference in university teachers’ responses for the variables understudy on the basis of gender. Results of data analysis revealed a moderate positive correlation among the variables understudy. Pages 162 to 171




Mediator Variables’ Influences towards Behaviors of e-Money Users

Arin Na Ranong, Faculty of Business Administration, Rajamangala University of Technology Rattanakosin, 96 Moo 3 Thanon Phutthamonthon Sai 5 Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand 73170, Email: Arin.naranong@gmail.com

The objectives of this research is investigate the influences of four-parallel mediator variables of behavior intention, attitude, trust and perceived risk that transferred the influences of facilitating conditions to use behavior of e-Money users. The sample in this research is 500 of payment service users via e-Money of the Rabbit Line Pay service provider in Bangkok. According to the concept of Comrey & Lee (2013). The statistics applied in this research are including first descriptive statistics such as mean and second structural equation modeling (SEM) statistical analysis using PLS Graph 3.0. The results from the study show that the maximum mean of facilitating conditions is 4.00 with the standard deviation of 0.604, followed by behavior intention of the service users with the mean of 4.01 and the standard deviation of 0.601, and trust of the service users with the mean of 3.97 and the standard deviation of 0.679. For the analysis results of the four-parallel mediator variables of behavior intention, attitude, trust, and perceived risk that transferred the influences of facilitating conditions to use behavior of e-Money users, the behavioral intention and trust are factors that relate the influences of the facilitating conditions with the users’ behavior significantly. Pages 172 to 193




Hospital Environmental Management Facilitating Healing Towards Service Quality of Chonburi, Rayong, and Buddhasothorn Hospitals in Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC) in 2020

Ekkawit Maneethorn** and Shotisa Cousnit*, Faculty of Political Science and Law, Burapha University, 169 Long-Hard Bangsaen Rd, Saensuk Sub-district, Mueang District, Chon Buri Province, Thailand 20131, Email: **ekwmnt@yahoo.co.th, *shotianne@gmail.com (**corresponding author)

This research aimed to study 1) the hospital environmental management for healing facilitation; 2) the service quality provided by Chonburi, Rayong, and Buddhasothorn Hospitals in the Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC) in 2020; and, 3) the hospital environmental management facilitating healing towards service quality of Chonburi, Rayong, and Buddhasothorn Hospitals in the Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC) in 2020. The research populations were people who received services from Chonburi, Rayong, and Buddhasothorn Hospital in 2020. The amount was uncertain. The samples in this study were 400 of those who received services from these three hospitals, retrieved from a convenience sampling method. The data collection tool was the questionnaire. The statistics used for data analysis were frequency, percentage, average, and standard deviation, correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. It was found from the study results that the hospital environmental management for the healing facilitation overall presented at the highest level in which it could be ranked from most to least as follows: psychological environment, physical environment, social environment, and natural environment. The hospital service quality overall showed in the highest level in which it could be ranked from most to least as follows: hospital services on the aspect of procedural improvement, leadership, customer expectations, and meaningful data. Environmental management either on physical, natural, social or psychological environment was associated with the score of hospital service quality either on the aspects of customer expectations, leadership, procedural improvement, or meaningful data. Overall, they showed with high level of relationship in the same direction. The influential environmental factors on the hospital service quality overall were for instance, psychological environment, physical environment, and social environment. All the three factors together were able to explain the service quality of the hospital at 80.4 percent. Pages 194 to 210




Dualism of Judicial Decisions in the Court of Industrial Relations

Salahudin Gaffar, A student in the Post-Graduate Program of the Faculty of Law of University, Correspondence: lawfirmindonesia@gmail.com

Law No. 2 of 2004 Article 7 (3) confirms that an Agreement shall apply as a binding law to the signing parties. The objectives of legal reform in Industrial Relations are to achieve legal certainty for the parties in dispute. Registration to the Court of Industrial Relations is necessary for settlement outside of the Court. The Court will subsequently issue a Deed of Evidence for the Settlement of Dispute. Unfortunately, it is permissible for one of the parties to cancel the said agreement unilaterally, leading to the Court's settlement. If the Court is consistent with the above provisions, it should be sufficient to check the Joint Agreement's existence and evidence of dispute settlement record issued by the same Court. Despite that, the Court should have rejected the Agreement; in reality, it continued the case until the final verdict. The previous precedence shows that the Court, in its consideration, always states that it considers the said documents as having no executorial power. Such a condition has caused a loss of legal certainty to the disputing parties in the dispute settlement process of industrial relations outside of the Court. Pages 211 to 226




Application of the Google Classroom-Assisted Blended-Inquiry Method on Students’ Critical Thinking Skills

Yuliantia, Ni Made Novi Suryantib, Sukardic*, a,bSociology Education Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, cThe Faculty of Teacher Training and Education & Postgraduate, University of Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia. Correspondence: Sukardi, Email: sukardi@unram.ac.id

This study aims to determine whether or not there is an effect of the Google Classroom-assisted blended-inquiry method on students' critical thinking skills. The population in this study included all eleventh grade students of Senior High Schools in Mataram. The research sample consisted of two classes, namely, one class as the experimental class and one class as the control class, both of which were selected by random sampling after the classes were levelled. This study uses a quantitative approach - more specifically, a Quasi Experiment with Non-equivalent Control Group Design. The instrument used was a multiple choice test which was deemed valid and reliable, and met discrimination power and difficulty level index. All data was analysed quantitatively using comparative analysis and N-Gain test. The experimental test results show that there are differences in critical thinking skills of students in  the experimental and control classes, thus it is concluded that the application of the Google Classroom-assisted blended-inquiry method has an effects on students' critical thinking skills. Gain score analysis results showed that the increase in each critical thinking skill dimension of students in the experimental class is higher than the other class’. This implies that the use of Google Classroom-assisted blended-inquiry method can serve as a supplement to strengthen constructivist theories in learning design. Pages 227 to 238




The Relationship between sectoral FDI and ICT: Empirical evidence from China

Faisal Mehmood ¹, Wang Bing2, Hameed Khan3*, Henna41,2College of Public Administration, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, China, 3Department of Economics, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat, Pakistan ( corresponding author), 4Institute of Business Studies, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat, Pakistan, Emails: 1fmehmood_kmu@yahoo.com2wbyf@mail.hust.edu.cn3hameed.qec@gmail.com,  4hennagulawat@gmail.com

The massive FDI inflows and the development of the ICT sector in China are the two crucial phenomena that the world witnessed during the past couple of decades. This paper seeks to understand the interplay between sectoral FDI and ICT by addressing key issues that were previously ignored, which include the omitted variable bias and the nexus of sectoral FDI-ICT. We explore these by using the ARDL and VECM approaches under the multilevel specification framework and a comprehensive index of ICT, which covers both quality and quantity indicators. From this analysis, we find that a stable long-term relationship exists between ICT and the sectoral distribution of FDI. The Granger causalities substantiate the ARDL results and reveal that a two-way causal relationship exists between the aforementioned variables. The parameter estimates of the control variables were found to be consistent and robust in the analysis. Our research makes for fertile ground for policymakers as well as academic researchers on these topics. Pages 239 to 262




Investigating the Influence of Institutional Environment on Audacious Followership and Authentic Leadership at Secondary Level

Dr. Said Saeeda, Dr. Muhammad Tariqb, Dr. Fazli Khaliqc, aPrincipal, Elementary & Secondary Education Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, bLecturer, Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra, cSST, Elementary & Secondary Education Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Email: aSyedsaeed54@gmail.com, bmuhammadtariq@hu.edu.pk cKhaliq78@yahoo.com

In the current scenario, understanding the notion of cohorts is as significant as the perception of leaders in the institution. Building the notion of cohorts and leadership, this study employed the retrogressive worldview method in management study and conjectured the correlation between audacious cohortship and authentic leadership upsurges, and how the institutional environment performs as a moderator between audacious followership and authentic leadership. The target sample for this study was teachers from schools in zone 2s of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (n= 363). This sample was chosen by convenient sampling techniques. Data were gathered through a questionnaire. SPSS version 26 was used to analyse the data through moderation analysis techniques. The results buttressed the study’s hypotheses. The results of the study showed that the institutional environment displays performance as a moderator and influences the correlation between audacious followership and authentic leadership. This specifies  augmenting the institutional ethos;  values would also boost audacious followership attitude in learners and this would proceed them to become authentic leaders in the future. Future investigators might require to reflect the audacious followership attitude in relationship to authentic leadership at college and university level and may adopt different approaches i.e. qualitative and mixed methods. Pages 263 to 277




The Shift in Open Trade Policy due to Economic Maturity

Safdar Husain Tahira*, Shahzad Yaqoobb, Wajiha Kanwalc, Muhammad Naeem Mohsind, Gulzar Ahmade, Muhammad Rizwan Ullahf, a,fLyallpur Business School, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan, bMS-Business administration, National University of Modern Languages, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan, cDepartment of  Education, University of Wah, Wah Cantt 47040, Pakistan, dDepartment of Education, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan, eDepartment of Psychology, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore 54792, Pakistan, Email: a*drsafdar@gcuf.edu.pk , bshahzadyaqoob425@gmail.com, cdr.wajihakanwal@uow.edu.pk, dmnmohsin71@gmail.com , egul-zar818@gmail.com, fmrizwanullah77@gmail.com

The study contributes to finding the shift in open trade policy to institutional quality due to economic maturity by juxtaposing developed and developing economies. The research study employs a quantitative approach to examine the impact of open trade policy and institutional quality on industrial production. The panel data consist of seventeen developed and fifteen developing countries ranging from 1999 through 2019. The study applies various econometric techniques like Principal Component Analysis, Panel Unit Root, and Panel Cointegration tests to examine the long-run nexus of open trade policy, institutional quality, and industrial production. We conclude that developing countries with immature economies are inclined to adopt open trade policy over institutional quality to grasp the benefits of increasing industrial production trends. However, developing countries with mature economies prefer to raise institutional quality by standardising their operating norms and procedures in their industries. The study's findings indicate that open trade policy is more beneficial for developing countries than for developed countries. However, higher levels of institutional standards comparatively provide more benefits to developed economies. This study is a practical help in redesigning trade policies by offering comparisons between developing and developed economies worldwide.  Pages 278 to 295




A Study of Historical Data, The Culture and Identity of Communities Related to Thai Food Culture to Promote and Create the Production of Films and Television Dramas

Sastra Laoakka, Assistant Professor, Department of Cultural Management, Faculty of Fine Arts and Cultural Science, Mahasarakham University, Thailand, Email: hugna.studio@gmail.com

This research study has a twofold objective: 1) to study historical data, the culture, and identity of communities related to Thailand’s food culture, and 2) to propose guidelines for promoting the production of movies and television dramas. This research uses basic research. The research has divided the target groups for data collection into 3 groups, which are 1) Knowledge group 2) Practice group and 3) General persons; by collecting data from Document Collect data from a field study, structured and unstructured interview, participation observation and non-participation observation, and focus groups. The data was then analyded to find a way to answer the problems according to the set objectives. The results of the research revealed that the identity of the community is related to the types of Thai food culture which are 1) Taiyo food, 3 distinctive food items 2) 3 types of Phu Thai people food 3) Food by Nga or Lao 1 Type 4) The food of Dan Sai people in Loei province is Saton vegetable juice. Guidelines for promotion are used to create the production of movies and television dramas, as follows: first, establish an information system in the aspects of history, art, culture, and community identity related to Thai food culture to provide sufficient facilities for film and television drama producers; second, coordinate between communities with government agencies, private organisations, and film and television drama producers involved for proactive planning to develop sustainably; third, set up a budget to support by teaching people in the community to collect information and present themselves for  sustainable development. Pages 296 to 310




Assessment Framework of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure

Tai Ming Wuta and Wai-man Ester Ipb aSchool of Professional Education and Executive Development, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, bCrowe (HK) CPA Limited. Email: aedmund.wut@cpce-polyu.edu.hk, besterip@yahoo.co.uk

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new assessment framework on corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure. The study examines existing CSR disclosure standards and literature. The new assessment on CSR disclosure contains user-specific qualities; primary decision-specific qualities like relevance and reliability (verifiability); secondary and interactive quality like comparability and reliability (neutrality) and; the threshold for recognition like materiality and conservatism. This is one of the first studies to examine the quality of CSR/ESG disclosure rather than the quantity of CSR/ESG information provided. Pages 311 to 326




The Authority of the Government Agencies in the State of Emergency
in Vietnam

Cao Vu Minh, PhD, Ho Chi Minh city University of law, Vietnam, Email: cvminh@hcmulaw.edu.vn

The state of emergency is the situation when the society is in severe crisis due to many causes, affecting and threatening the national survival. The declaration of the state of emergency is presumably to increase the power of the ruler’s agencies. This article analyses the authority of the national authorities in the state of emergency in Vietnam and some recommendations. Pages 327 to 341




The Effect of Overconfidence in the Presentation of Financial Statements on Corporate Tax Avoidance

Mostafa A. Almansoori1*, Raid Hassan Ali2, Ali Nadhem Abdulamir3, 1Accounting Department, College of Administration and Economics, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq,2Department of Business Administration, College of Administration and Economics, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq, 3Department of Banking and Financial Sciences, College of Administration and Economics, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq, Email: mustafa.abd1983@mu.edu.iq  

The present study aims to evaluate the relationship between overconfidence in the presentation of financial statements on corporate tax avoidance. This project is descriptive-correlational and the statistical population under study is listed companies on the Iraqi Stock Exchange during 2014-2018, among which are 28 companies. Four hypotheses were designed for this study, all of which were examined by the ordinary least squares regression method and  Eviews Version 9 Software. The results of the study show that there is a significant relationship between conservatism and underpricing in the initial and secondary stock offerings. Other results also suggest that there is a positive relationship between conservatism and underpricing in an initial and secondary offering in an information asymmetry setting. Since no similar study has been conducted in Iraq, so far, this paper can contribute significantly to the field. Pages 342 to 354




The Impact of Brand Experience on Brand Engagement: Applied study on Saudi M-banking services

Manal Mohamed EL Mekebbatya, Mona Hatem Taher Salehb, Ahmed Osman Ibrahim Ahmedc, Anas Satti Satti Mohammedd, Osman Saad Shidwane, Mohamednour Eltahir Ahmed Abdelgadirf, a,c,d,e,fBusiness Administration Department, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, bDepartment of Marketing, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

The current research paper investigated the impact of brand experience on brand engagement. The study was applied to the Saudi mobile banking (M-banking) services. Data analysis was performed by using nonlinear partial least squares - structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). An online survey was used to collect the data from 350 M-banking users. Accordant with the results, both affective and intellectual brand experiences have a positive and meaningful relationship with brand engagement, while each sensory and behavioural brand experience has an insignificant effect on brand engagement. The control variables included age and education. According to the findings, there are significant differences in brand engagement among respondents based on age, while there are no major differences in brand engagement among respondents considering education. This research offers both theoretical and philosophical perspectives on online brand engagement. Also, this research investigated the practical implications of M-banking services during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as encouraging electronic transactions in different fields. Pages 355 to 370




Self-leadership, Self-efficacy, and Students Adaptive Online Learning Performance during the COVID-19 Crises

Fakhr e Alam Afridi1, Dr Shahid Jan2, Bushra Ayaz3, Muhammad Irfan4, 1,3,4Ph.D. Scholar, Islamia College Peshawar, Pakistan, 2Associate Professor Islamia College Peshawar, Pakistan, Email: 1falam@numl.edu.pk, 2shahidjan@icp.edu.pk, 3bayaz@numl.edu.pk, 4irfan443@gmail.com

The primary motive behind this study is to examine the relationship among students’ practices of self-leadership strategies, self-efficacy, and performance outcomes levels in the online learning environment.  Two hundred and seventeen students, enrolled at a university level in different degree courses at the graduate and postgraduate level, participated in this study. We follow a two-step structural equation modelling approach to assess the relationship between the proposed variables of the model. Results reveal that students with a high level of self-efficacy tend to have more effective performance in uncertain or unpredictable situations. Also, when students show a high level of self-leadership in their online learning, their level of self-efficacy and performance satisfaction has  increased. This study contributes to the informal self-leadership emerging research especially in developing young countries.  This study also carefully observes and spots the evidence for future research that fosters changes in the academic life of students and how student’s learning performance can be enhanced by self-leadership in this unique situation. Pages 371 to 391




Corporate Governance and Quality of Financial Reporting of Listed Firms: Evidence from Saudi Arabia

Marwa A. Alsaadi1, Bashir Tijjani2, Khalid I. Falgi3, 1,2,3Department of Accounting, College of Business Administration, Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

This paper examines the impact of applying corporate governance (CG) mechanisms on the quality of financial reports of listed financial firms in Saudi Arabia. The focus is on how quality of financial reporting (QFR) is affected by board independence, board size, audit committee independence, audit committee size, and ownership structure of listed financial firms. The study uses financial statistics from the annual reports and accounts of a sample of 18 financial firms listed in the Saudi Stock Exchange over the period 2012 to 2017. QFR is measured using discretionary accruals of the modified Jones model (Dechow et al., 1995). The findings revealed a statistically positive significant impact of board independence, audit committee independence and ownership structure on QFR. On the other hand, results showed a statistically insignificant impact of the size of the board and audit committee on QFR. Results support arguments of the stakeholder theory that having high institutional shares in listed firms motivates internal stakeholders to disclose high quality financial reports. The Saudi economy is being opened for large foreign investments in line with its Vision 2030; as a result, potential foreign investors would want to know more about the Saudi CG practice in relation to board governance and quality of financial reports of the listed firms on the SSE. Findings from this study contribute to the literature on the application of CG in Saudi Arabia by encouraging policy makers and regulators to improve the CG code and ensure compliance by the listed firms. Pages 392 to 410




Exploring Factors Influencing Learner Performance in the Economic and Management Sciences in Rural Kwazulu-Natal Province of South Africa

Siyaya, M.C1, Gamede B.T2, Uleanya, C3* and Ndlovu B.B4, 1,2,4University of Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and 3*University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa. Email: 3*chinazauleanya@yahoo.com

The study explores various factors influencing learner performance in EMS in rural South Africa, using qualitative method. Purposive sampling was used to select the ward where the research was conducted, the schools and the educators. Data was collected from 17 samples through the use of semi-structured interviews which were conducted for 17 teachers, 5 of which were Heads of Department across 17 secondary schools. Collected data were coded and annalysed using themes. The findings of the study amongst others show that recruitment of unqualified teachers, lack of exposure to commercial subjects, negatively affects teaching and learning activities around the subject. Pages 411 to 432



Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards COVID-19 among Pakistan University Students

Dr Zaib Maroofa, Sarah Ahmedb, Dr Noor ul Hadic, a,bFoundation University Islamabad, Pakistan, cCollege of Business Administration, Department of Human Resource Management, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Email: aZaib.maroof@fui.edu.pk, bsarah.qaim@fui.edu.pk, cn_hadi@yahoo.com

Despite the availability of a large amount of information pertinent to COVID-19, a lot of violation of SOPs and available guidelines have not been practiced yet in Pakistan to control the spread of this virus. Therefore, there is a need to recognise the reasons that can improve practices of taking safety measures. For this reason, this study is conducted with a purpose to explain the key role of attitude towards practicing safety measures regarding COVID-19 among Pakistani Universities students. To examine the key role towards practicing safety measures, 359 valid responses were analysed via PROCESS macro. The results indicated that a positive and significant relationship exists between COVID-19 knowledge and COVID-19 practices. However, the direct effect shown by the results of COVID-19 knowledge on COVID-19 practice is significant in the presence of attitude towards COVID-19 as a mediator. Indicating that right attitude regarding disease awareness is predisposed by consistent knowledge on COVID-19, and right attitude towards the prevention of COVID-19 will lead to appropriate COVID-19 preventive practices. Pages 433 to 445

Protection of Children and Women’s Rights in Indonesia through International Regulation Ratification

Laurensius Arliman Sa,  Ni Putu Eka Budi PWDb, aLecture in Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Hukum Padang, bGraduate Student at Andalas University, Email: alaurensiusarliman@gmail.com

Protection of human rights doesn’t differentiate between age and sex, anyone has the right to get protection. Indonesia as a law country is obliged to protect the human rights of its citizens, as well as Indonesia’s is as a member of the United Nations which obliges it to ratify rules relating to women and children’s protection. This article will discuss the extent of ratification carried out by the Indonesia government to illuminate children’s and women’s rights. This type of law research is also commonly referred to as doctrinal law research or as a literature review. It is called doctrinal law research because this research is only aimed at written regulations and it is very closely related to literatures because secondary data is required in the literature review. The results of this research show that the Indonesian government has brought forward children’s rights with the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in the Presidential Decree of the Republic of Indonesia Number 36 of 1990. Besides that, it also resulted in Child Protection Law. Meanwhile for the protection of omen, Indonesia ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in 1984 through Law Number 7 of 1984, concerning Ratification of the Convention regarding the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, which afterward was followed by Presidential Instruction Number 9 of 2000 concerning Gender Mainstreaming, and Law Number 23 of 2004 about the Elimination of Domestic Violence so that, women in Indonesia are more protected. Pages 446 to 461

Exploratory Study on Preventive Measures to Prevent Child Labour Exploitation in Belt and Road Countries from Perspective of Fashion Industry

Yui-yip Lau1, Eve Man Hin Chan2*, 1Division of Business and Hospitality Management, College of Professional and Continuing Education, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, 2Faculty of Design and Environment, Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong (THEi), Hong Kong, Email: *evechan@thei.edu.hk

There are increasing problems of child labour in Asia, specifically in the developing countries. As such, this research work focuses on the exploitation of child labour in Bangladesh, which is not only the largest apparel supplier across the globe, but also the target of numerous reports of child labour exploitation. Many companies outsource their manufacturing to developing countries as the costs of production, labour and land are considerably lower. However, they also neglect the ethical issues in the developing countries and the social issues are downplayed for profit gains. As such, manufacturers may take advantage of the vulnerability of the developing countries by employing their children and paying insufficient wages for their hard work. Most of these children are much younger than the local stipulated legal age of employment. Hence, this research work aims to help provide realistic measures to prevent the exploitation of children and promote the overall welfare of society as well as facilitate sustainable prosperity. The objective of this study is to present a systematic analysis of the literature that documents child labour. The individual measures taken by the different stakeholders might not be adequate enough for a holistic solution to prevent and mitigate child labour. It is also important to take into consideration the viewpoint of the different companies, workers and the Bangladesh government. Therefore, the tripartite theory and Triple Bottom Line model are applied in this research work. This study discusses the issue of child labour with educators and fashion industry experts to obtain their insights and misconceptions. Moreover, the study focuses on providing different perspectives from the education and the industry sectors to better understand their views on child labour which will contribute to a comprehensive analysis of the problem and more robust findings. As many developing countries rely on foreign direct investment (FDI) to expand their market overseas and attract new investment to further develop their economy, such as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), the growing opportunities may only serve to increase the likelihood of child exploitation. Therefore, companies need to understand their role in corporate social responsibility (CSR) as this involves their business reputation and meets the current demands of the community. A social dialogue among the different stakeholders in the community can be conducive and key to preventing child labour. Pages 462 to 494

Preventing Violent Extremism through Augmenting Community Resilience and Empowering Community Members in Swat

Dr. Muhammad Idris1, Dr. Said Saeed 2, Sumaira Noreen3, 1,2Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Assistant Professor, Principal Elementary & Secondary Education KP, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Email:1*midrees@awkum.edu.pk, 2*syedsaeed54@gmail.com   3sumaira.noreen@lcwu.edu.pk

Terrorism is the chronic issue of the hour. It is the disciplined practice of vicious activities like assassinating, slaughtering, mutilating, and frightening of the innocents to attain religious, fiscal, and political goals and to challenge the writ of the state. Leaders of the world promised to transform the planet by empowering community members and building community resilience (CR) against terrorism. This study concentrates on exploring building community resilience against terrorism, empowering community members and implementing strategies for strengthening community resilience.  For data collection, a mixed method methodology was used. Means, STD deviation, Pearson correlation, and thematic analysis were employed for the analysis of the gathered data. The findings of the study were interpreted and recommendations were furnished accordingly. Study results were disseminated to all concerned through conferences and seminar sessions. It is predicted that after completion, the project team was in a robust position to start writing the report that concentrates on strengthening community resilience, which is the crucial goal of this project. The publication will contribute effectively to all stakeholders and society, particularly to the lower rungs of social order. Moreover, it is expected that this project will contribute to future research in the domain of community resilience. This project will also reveal the remarkable potential of archival research on community resilience. Pages 495 to 514

Accounting Disclosure of Social Responsibility and its Role in Enhancing the Quality of Accounting Information (An Analytical Study in a Sample of the Iraqi Industrial Companies)

Akeel Dakheel Kareema, Waad Hadi abdb and Aqeel Jaber Kadhimca,b,c Department of Accounting, Collage of Administration & Economics, Al-MuthannaUniversity,Iraq          
Email: aaqeel.dakheel70@gmail.com, bwaadabd24@yahoo.com                                                                                                                       

The research aims to know the role played by the accounting disclosure of the social responsibility of the industrial companies in the quality of their accounting information provided to the users in decision-making, in addition to the presentation of social expenditures spent by Iraqi companies in order to meet the requirements of customers, employees and the society. In order to achieve this objective, the researcher used the inductive approach in the theoretical and analytical methods and the analytical approach in the practical part for the purpose of testing the hypothesis of the research in a sample of the Iraqi industrial companies represented by Al-Hilal Industrial Company, Baghdad Company for soft drinks and Iraqi Company for the Manufacturing Cardboard Materials, for the fiscal years 2014-2015. After testing the hypothesis, the research objectives were achieved. The most important finding of the research is that the expenditure on social expenses in industrial companies is considered one of the most important factors influencing the acceptance of society for the products provided by these companies, in addition to the existence of a close link between the disclosure of social information for external parties and between the efficiency and quality of the accounting information used to make decisions. The most important recommendation of the research is the need for Iraqi industrial companies to increase the provision of information relating to the commitment to social responsibility towards employees, society and customers because of its clear effect on the continuity of companies in the future. Pages 540 to 554

The Importance of Competitive Advantages to Rationalise Product Costs to Achieve Customer Satisfaction and Attract Investors in the Financial Statements. Applied Research in the Electric Cables Plant / Ur State Company

Mohammed Sameer Dherib AL Robaaiy1, Basim Mohammed Merhej2, Maytham Abed Kadhim3, 1,3Collage of Management & Economics, Al- Muthanna University, Iraq, 2Collage of Arts, Al- Muthanna University, Iraq, Email: 1mohammed19691108@gmail.com, 1dr.mohamedsm@mu.edu.iq, 2basammohmmed2014@gmail.com, 3Maytham.almusaway@gmail.com

The research aims to explain the reasons for the high cost of production and the application of modern concepts in accounting costs and administrative, which came to remove loss and waste and rationalisation of costs and improve operational performance in response to changing conditions in the business environment. As a result of these variables and circumstances, the research problem was manifested in the high cost of manufacturing the products of Ur Company, which lost competitive precedence with other products in terms of price, quality and other specifications imported from various sources. In order to achieve the objective of the research and solve the problem, a basic hypothesis was developed that the use and application of modern concepts leads to rationalising the cost of manufacturing products, improving activities and processes, and creates a market share in the local environment. It is also necessary to continuously seek (i) to reduce the production, marketing and administrative costs of the plant, (ii) the need to seek replacement of machinery and equipment with advanced technology machines, (iii) to impose customs duties on the imported products and (iv) activate the role of the standardisation and quality control apparatus. Pages 555 to 576

Cheating during Examinations: Prevalence, Consequences, Contributing Factors and Prevention

Zafar Iqbal1, Muhammad Anees2, Dr Rahim Khan3, Dr. Iffat Ara Hussain4, Shagufta Begum5, Abdur Rashid6, Dr. Abdulwadood7, Dr. Farooq Hussain8

 1,3,4Qurtuba University of science and information technology Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 2Department of English Government College Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 5Department of Pashto, Government Degree College Jalozai Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 6Deputy Director sports Directorate of Higher education Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 7Department of Education, Sarhad university of Science and information technology Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. 8Department of Physical education & Sports Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Academic cheating, whether during examinations, study projects or the whole assessment period of academic activities, is a serious dilemma which is ubiquitous in learning institutes throughout the world. The problem is equally prevalent in Pakistan and reaches peaks during examinations and academic assessments. The issue reflects the degree of social, psychological and ethical norms of students engaged in cheating, although the role of institutions in directing academic cheating is also debatable. The practice negatively affects fair academic grading, the behaviour of non-cheating students, overall ethical standards expected of the future graduates and qualitative standards of the learning institutes. It is logical to presume that cheating during academic activities will likely influence the professional life of students in the workplace. In order to safeguard academic integrity, it is necessary to understand factors which contribute to the practice of cheating among students. The aim of this paper is to present the prevalence of academic cheating in higher education institutes during examinations, their corresponding factors and prospective preventive measures. Pages 601 to 609

The Role of Person-Organisation Fit and Affective Commitment in Inspiring Citizenship Behaviours among Banking Sector Employees of Pakistan

Muhammad Zohaib Tahira, Noor Ul Hadib, Tahir Mumtaz Awanc, aPhD Scholar – COMSATS University, Islamabad, Pakistan. bCollege of Business Administration, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd, University Al~Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. cAssistant Professor - COMSATS University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Organisational citizenship behaviour has been deemed crucially relevant for organisational effectiveness and success; thus, significant emphasis is laid upon enhancing and sustaining favourable workplace attitudes and behaviours by managements across organisations. Various models of organisational citizenship behaviour have been presented by researchers in the past; however, a meagre number of studies managed to establish a causal framework explaining employees’ drive towards citizenship behaviours. Therefore, the present study analysed the role of person-organisation fit in inspiring citizenship behaviours through affective commitment upon two backdrops i.e., Social Exchange Theory and Social Identity Theory. The study employed 290 valid responses; conveniently collected from the six major banking sector organisations operating in Pakistan, which were subjected to regression analysis through the Process Macro [Model-4] for SPSS v. 22. Subsequent to analysis, it was found that affective commitment partially mediates the relationship between person-organization fit and organisational citizenship behaviour; signifying that, values congruence elicits higher commitment from employees, eventually promoting citizenship behaviours; whereas, incongruence in employee-organisational values may hold adverse implications for commitment levels as well as the employees’ tendency to exhibit extra-role behaviours. Pages 610 to 634

Improving Student Learning and Engagement by Integrating Mobile Technology and Rebuttal Writing in Teacher’s Feedback

Dr. Urooj Fatima1*, Dr. Obaid Aslam 2, Dr. Khizar Hayyat3, Dr.  Faiz Ul Hassan Shah4,  Dr. Muhammad Usman Riaz5, 1*Riphah International University, Department of Education, Faisalabad. 2Riphah International University, Department of Education, Faisalabad. 3Riphah International University, Department of Education, Faisalabad.  4HOD Department of Education, Mir Chakar Khan Rind University Sibi, Baluchistan 5Research Assistant, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, China

Email: *Corresponding author. 1fatimaarooj092@gmail.com, 2Muhammadobaidaslam@gmail.com, 3khizarhayat332@yahoo.com, 4syed.f@mckru.edu.pk, 5musmanriaz@yahoo.com

The feedback from the teacher is significant for forming a conducive learning experience, though it is of trivial importance in the absence of student engagement. Preciously, few researchers have empirically investigated the impact of the direct intervention on the enhancement of student engagement following the teacher's feedback. The study intends to find out the impact and use of rebuttal writing tasks and mobile technology as a learning tool and its promotion of students' engagement with teachers' feedback. A mixed research methodology was adopted where experimental design and meta-analysis was performed. For rebuttal writing, the experimental research design, a total of 118 undergraduate students were recruited using multiple sources (structured questionnaire, students’ first drafts, as well as their revised essays. The meta-analysis explored the influence of integrated mobile technology. For this, 110 articles published from 1993 to 2013 (experimental as well as quasi-experiment) were assessed. The experimental findings provide that rebuttal writing was enjoyed by the students considering the value it adds. Whereas, the findings of the meta-analysis showed the mean size effect of 0.523 for the use of mobile devices for learning. The study concluded that rebuttal writing facilitated the teachers’ feedback effect, while the integration of mobile technology improves students’ engagement towards learning. Pages 635 to 652

The Optimum Release Height for Javelin Throwers in Proportion to Their Lengths

Jamal Abubshara¹, Osama Abdel Fattah², 1Dr, Department of Physical Education, Palestine Technical University-Khadoorie. Palestine, ²Dr, Ministry of education, Amman, Jordan 

This study aimed at identifying the optimum height release for  javelin throw  proportion to  the length of the world champions in the javelin throw event.  To achieve this, the researchers used the descriptive correlative approach on a sample of international champions in this event (n=33). Data were collected through some of the previous studies. The study results showed the optimum height release of a javelin throw constitutes a 105.75% proportion to the length of the world champions in this event. The researchers recommend coaches to reconsider determining the height release of the javelin with achieving the optimum velocity and angle release should also be provided. Abbreviations should not be used in the abstract. Pages 653 to 657

Does Fatigue have an Effect on the Correlative Relationship between Kinematic Variables of the Penalty kick in Soccer?

Jamal Abubshara¹, Osama Abdel Fattah², 1Dr, Department of Physical Education, Palestine Technical University-Khadoorie. Palestine, ²Dr, Ministry of education, Amman, Jordan 

The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of fatigue on the correlative relationship between the penalty kinematic variables. To achieve that, the quasi-experimental approach has been applied to nine (9) male soccer players.  Each player has kicked ten (10) balls from the penalty point, five (5) balls before and five (5) balls after the application, so that the total number of attempts was ninety (90) shots. The study sample was videotaped by using tow Canon 6D video cameras which reached a speed 60 f/s, one placed vertically at the lateral level and the other placed vertically behind the player and on the front level. Furthermore, a total of 74 successful attempts were analysed by using the Kenova kinematic analysis program (0.8.27 x64). The results of the study showed a statistically significant difference in the values of kinematic variables pre and post the application of the fatigue protocol and for the benefit of  measurement. Also, the accuracy of the kick variable was the most variable affected by fatigue (29.3) %.  In addition, the effect of fatigue was studied on the correlative relationship between the kinetic variables under study. Pages 658 to 670

Pakistan Studies Curriculum at Graduate level in District Peshawar, Pakistan

Tabassum Mehbooba, Amjad Rebab, & Adnan Shahzadc, aPh.D, Pakistan Study Center, University of Peshawar, bAssistant Professor, Institute of Education and Research, University of Peshawar, cPhD, Institute of Education and Research, University of Peshawar.

The paper was designed to explore the perceptions of students regarding Pakistan Studies curriculum at graduate level. This was a quantitative type of study. The questionnaire was used to collect information from students at graduate level. The data were tabulated and descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage were calculated. Friedman’s chi-square test was used for testing hypotheses categorical variables. The data found that the majority of the students 82.6 % agreed that they take interest in learning the subject of Pakistan Studies.  Most of the respondents 87.0% agreed that the subject matter of course content generate creative thinking among the students. Majority of the respondents 77.8% agreed that the curriculum reflects the ideology of Pakistan. It is recommended that the objectives of the curriculum must be properly defined and teachers must emphasize the need for national integration, unity, and patriotism because without it the curriculum would not be useful. Pages 671 to 682

Media Socialisation - The Influence of Media that led to a Genocide: A Case of Rwanda and Egypt

Omar Gomaaa, Sivamurugan Pandianb, Nur Hafeeza Binti Ahmad Pazilc, a(Main Author) Master candidate at School of Social Sciences, Anthropology and Sociology, Universiti Sains Malaysia. b(Correspondent Author) Prof., Dr. at Department of Anthropology and Sociology, School of Social Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, c(Co-Supervisor) PhD, at Department of Anthropology and Sociology, School of Social Siences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Email: aomarjomaa2006@gmail.com, bpsiva@usm.my, chafeezapazil@usm.my

“Slaughter the sheep” and “Cut down the tall trees”: two sentences that describe the origin of two genocides that occurred on African soil. Both Egypt and Rwanda witnessed two genocides that sent the countries backward. This paper examines the role of media socialisation that led the Rabaa genocide to occur in Egypt and the Rwandan genocide that took place in 1994. This paper ascertains that media socialisation successfully shifted moderate inhabitants, who had no political backgrounds, to become a killing machine. Whilst Egyptian media contained social media, T.V channels, and newspapers to socialise the military, police and inhabitants abominate the Muslim Brotherhood. It had also sought an ample – motivation – to murder them. The Rwandan media utilised a radio channel known as RTLM. RTLM, however, was the sole factor that led to the genocide by the abominable messages it propagated thus cajoling the Interahamwe to murder the Tutsis. Pages 683 to 695 

Impact of Leader-Member Exchange on Customer-oriented Citizenship Behavior through Job Embeddedness and the Moderating Role of Islamic Work Ethics

Maham Tariqa, Dr. Sajjad Hussainb, Mehwish Ali Khanc, Dr. Junaid ul Haqd, Shaheena Hafeeze, aRiphah International University, Faisalabad Campus, bAssistant Professor, Foundation University, Islamabad, cLecturer, Riphah International University, Islamabad, dAssistant Professor, Riphah International University, Faisalabad Campus, eMS Scholar, Foundation University University, Islamabad, Email: aMahaa004@gmail.com, bsajjad.hussain@fui.edu.pk, cmehvish.ali@riphah.edu.pk, djunaid041@yahoo.com, eShaheenahafeez.82@gmail.com

This study examined the impact of Leader-member exchange (LMX) on Customer-oriented citizenship behavior (COCB) with the mediating role of Job embeddedness (JE) under the S-O-R theory. Further, the conditional effect of Islamic work ethics (IWE) was examined on LMX and JE. The quantitative study used a convenient sampling technique using n=298 frontline customer service restaurant employees based in Pakistan. All instruments were rated by subordinates except for the COCB outcome which was rated by supervisors. A cross-sectional study was employed using three separate time lags. Survey data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire containing 35 closed ended statements. AMOS was used to determine the model fit through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Regression analysis using SPSS was performed to determine direct main effects. Model 4 in Process macro v3.4 was used for testing hypothesized mediation. Model 1 was used for testing hypothesized moderation. Positive results were obtained for all hypothesized direct effects. Findings revealed that LMX explained significant variance for predicting employee attitude and behavior. Findings for indirect effects of JE also confirmed partial mediation in the relationship between LMX and COCB. The conditional effects of IWE on LMX and employees’ attitude was significant. Limitations faced within this study were addressed and recommendations were developed to assist future researchers with these limitations. Pages 696 to 719

Role of Brand and Endorser Credibility in Brand Equity of Cell Phone in Pakistan

Ali Razaa, Muhammad Bilalb*, Muhammad Maroof AjmalcSaqib Jamild, Naveede, Waseemullahf, aSenior Teacher O Level, LACAS, Gujranwala Campus, Pakistan, b*BBA Faculty Member/Coordinator, Department of Business & Economics, FG Sir Syed College Rawalpindi, Pakistan, Corresponding Author, cAssistant Professor, University Institute of Management Sciences, PMAS-University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi, Pakistan, dAssistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, University of Okara, Pakistan, eAssociate Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Qurtuba University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan, fLecturer, Department of Management Sciences, University of Gujrat, Pakistan. Email: arao.ali.raza09@gmail.com, b*rao.muhammad.bilal@gmail.com, cdr.maroof@uaar.edu.pk, dsaqib.jamil@uo.edu.pk, enaveedtoru97@gmail.com, fwaseem.ullah@uog.edu.pk

The use of endorsers is an effective technique in marketing adopted by companies to get a competitive edge over other competitors and get a distinctive place by becoming more visible in the clutter of advertisements. Previous studies focused on impact of endorser on buying behavior towards brand. The purpose of the current study is to examine the role of endorser and brand credibility towards brand equity of cell phone in Pakistan. The study also examines the mediating role of brand credibility between endorser credibility and brand equity. A total data of 211 respondents from six universities from Islamabad, Lahore and Multan were collected using simple random and stratified techniques. The data were collected using questionnaire which was adopted from scales that were already used in different studies. Instrument was adopted after establishing the reliability and validity of the scales. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and mediation affect was checked in line with Baron and Kenny’s model for mediation. The findings of the study support the previous studies which argued that endorser with higher credibility greatly effects the brand equity as compare to an endorser with less credibility. In addition, the results of the study show that the relation between endorser credibility and brand equity is mediated by brand credibility. Pages 720 to 747

The Impact of Unsystematic Risks on Stock Market Return in Jordanian Commercial Banks

Dr. Naseem Abu Roman, Associate professor in Finance, Banking and Finance Sciences Department, Faculty of Business & Finance, The World Islamic Sciences & Education University (W.I.S.E), Amman, Jordan, Email: naseemm55@yahoo.com

This study aimed to explore the impact of unsystematic risks (credit risk, liquidity risk and operational risks) on the stock market return in Jordanian commercial banks during the period 2009 to 2019. The study sample consisted of all Jordanian commercial banks, after excluding the three Islamic banks from the study sample, due to the different nature of their activities, and thus the final sample size becomes thirteen banks. The researcher relied on secondary data obtained from the Amman Stock Exchange website to calculate the stock market return, and the financial statements of Jordanian commercial banks to measure the level of unsystematic risk. The stock market return was calculated through the combined monthly return for a period of twelve months starting from May of the fiscal year and ending in April of the following fiscal year. Thereby, the period between May of the one year and April of the following year represents the window of study. The study found an impact of unsystematic risks (credit risk, liquidity risk and operational risk) on the stock market return in Jordanian commercial banks. The study recommends the need for commercial banks to pay attention to unsystematic risks because of their impact on the stock market return, and thus maximising the wealth of owners, as the value of market shares reflects investors' perceptions of the performance of companies and the efficiency of their management. Pages 748 to 765

Seeing Creativity: Attitudes towards Creativity from a Pakistani Sociocultural Background

Parveen Khana, Muhammad Kamranb, aAssistant professor, Institute of Education & Research, University of Peshawar, Pakistan, bAssistant professor, Department of Education, University of Loralai, Balochistan, Pakistan, Email: adrparveen@uop.edu.pk, bkamrankundi86@gmail.com  

From the Pakistani sociocultural perspective, this study investigated the general attitudes of Pakistani teachers towards creativity, which were ranked as the medium by involving a total of 155 (65 Males and 90 Females) teachers from diverse areas. Demographic variables such as gender, highest professional qualification, teaching level, and key subjects taught brought significant statistical differences in their attitudes towards creativity. The findings were discussed in light of past literature. Suggestions and limitations for future research were discussed. Pages 766 to 780

Impact of Complaint Handling, Brand Credibility & Brand Commitment on Brand Trust- Evidence from the Telecom Sector of a Developing Nation

Sobia Shujaata, Baseer Durranib, Iram Tahirc, Asif Kamrand, aAssistant Professor, Business Studies Department, Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan, bLecturer in Marketing, Nottingham Trent University, UK, cAssociate Lecturer, University of Central Lancashire, UK, dDepartment of business and management studies. Nazeer Hussain University, Karachi, pakistan

The present work is dedicated to examining the statistical analysis of three different topographies of brand (compliant handling, credibility, commitment) to enhance brand trust among consumers in the telecommunication sector. It also examines the mediating role of customer satisfaction on brand trust and its antecedents. The study was conducted in twin cities of Pakistan; primary data was gathered through a structured questionnaire. The population of the study comprised of telecom subscribers residing in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. 450 questionnaires were distributed among users of mobile phones whereas, 384 of them were completed and returned producing a response rate of 83%. The relationships among the variables were tested using SPSS-20, to get results for reliability, correlation, and regression analysis. The underlying theories employed to support variables in the research framework were Marketing Relationship Theory and Signaling Theory. The results revealed a significant influence of compliant handling, brand credibility, and brand commitment on brand trust. Customer satisfaction mediated the relationship between complaint handling, brand credibility, and brand commitment with brand trust. The study holds future implications for researchers and practitioners to enhance customer trust through complaint handling, credibility, and commitment to improving customer services. Pages 801 to 819

Quality Investment Decisions in Building Sustainable Smart Cities in the United Arab Emirates

Hala AL Yousfia, Badariah Haji dinb, Rusdi Omarc, a,b,cUniversiti Utara Malaysia, b,cSupervisor

In light of rapid development, many changes are sweeping the world as the phenomenon of smart government becomes more urgent with increasing applications and artificial intelligence. This has greatly contributed to pushing most organisations to respond quickly and smartly to the changes that occur and confront institutions, whether at the internal level of the organisation or at the community level, and investing in targeted innovations and increasing reliance on information technology. Hence, hundreds of research studies have been conducted on this phenomenon in these accelerating areas to keep pace with new technological development and to build organisations based on their structure. Studies have also been made on the vision and system of smart cities in line with creative thinking and innovative expectations. These have become a vital element indispensable for the continuation and prosperity of an organisation's activity. The main challenges of this study are to build an integrated smart city run by leaders who are able to make investment decisions for the city, and to provide insight into industries in various sectors. Large cities need to build an integrated automated system to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of crisis and disaster management and risk management represented in identifying risks and disasters according to the classification of the risk profile. In addition to the possibility of linking with all operational systems in the relevant organisations. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to study the relationship between the quality of investment decisions and the objectives of building. Analysing motives for building a smart city and to clarify the technologies that support the city are also important. As is how to face problems and challenges in smart cities and how to apply leadership practices as the mainstay of development and the true wealth of the nation to bring about change and development. This mission can only be achieved under conscious leadership based on sophisticated strategic foundations that support a culture of innovation and new practices, and work to attract enormous potential for investments. From here came the idea of adopting smart cities initiatives and developing a road map for city management with an integrated and sustainable methodology, with the use of capable expertise efficiently and supporting investment decisions, and to be an example to follow. It constitutes best practices and standards at the global level. Pages 820 to 834

Identity in Al-Qusaybi’s Novel “Al-Asfouriyeh”: A Semiotic Study

Thana Aldhafeeria, Zamri Arifinb, Firuz-akhtar Lubisc, a,bNational University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: athth2_@hotmail.com (corresponding author), babuzaim@ukm.edu.my, cfiruz@ukm.edu.my

Ghazi Al-Qusaybi is one of the Saudi men of letters who enriched the literary arena with lots of works that included poetry, stories, and novels. Such works of this prolific writer reflect his stature in the literary field. The position Al-Qusaybi held throughout his life helped in creating a different type of thinking. The current study aims to investigate identity in Al-Qusaybi’s novel “Al-Asfouriyeh” in an attempt to highlight its constituents, to analyse it, and to approach it semiotically. The study adopted the analytical descriptive method to illustrate the novel’s theme and the types of identity that Al-Qusaybi wanted to delineate through listing them and through explaining the symbolic connotations that such an identity incorporates. The study came up with a set of findings; the foremost among them are the several types of identities represented by: symbolic identity of the title, psychological identity, political identity, literary identity, and finally religious identity. Through such types of identities, the author managed to disseminate his ideas in the novel “Al-Asfouriyeh: that concentrated on madness as a cover by which he could convey some ideas and narrate events. Pages 835 to 844

The Impact of Long-Term Debt and Debt-Maturity on the Corporate Investment Decision of the MNCs - Evidence from Pakistan Stock Exchange

Mohammad Adnan1, Allah Rakha2, Tasawar Abdul Hamid3, Dr Rana Tahir Naveed4, Muhammad Waris5, 1SBS Swiss Business School, 2Research Scholar at Air University, Islamabad (Corresponding Author), 3Cardiff Metropolitan University, 4Department of Economics and Business Administration, Art & Social Sciences Division, University of Education, Lahore, 5PhD Scholar, University Uttara, Malaysia,

Email: 1adnan.abdulhamid@gmail.com, 2allahrakha1122@yahoo.com, 3Tasawar.abdulhamid@gmail.com, 4Tahir.naveed@ue.edu.pk, 5Muhammadwaris.vf@ue.edu.pk

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of institutional investment decision of MNCs listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange. Methods/Statistical analysis: Multinational companies of non-financial firms were selected based on market capitalisation.  Data was collected from annual reports and some companies have fallen out due to an outlier's problem and missing financial information. Finally, in this study  financial MNC’s samples listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange were examined from the 2013-2017 period. Panel data used for estimation and fixed effect model was selected based on Hausman and Likelihood test. Findings: The result of the conceptual framework shows that in the common effect model only cash flow and firm size significantly influence the investment decision of the firm, but whenever we extended the model to incorporate the time and individual effect by applying fixed effect model, board size, cash flow, fixed capital intensity, firm size and growth opportunity are the significant determinants of a corporate investment decision. Finely debt maturity, leverage, cash flow, firm size, return on assets and corporate ownership are key determinants affecting the enterprise investment decision in Pakistan. Pages 845 to 861

The Effectiveness of Using Point of View Video Modelling Intervention Strategy on Improving Self-Care Skills of a Student with Autism

May Ali Elmetwally Ghoneima, Hala Elhowerisb, Prof. Mohammed Alzyoudic, a,b College of Education, Department of Special Education, UAE University, cDean, College of Education, American University in the Emirates, UAE. Email: aMero200520@gmail.com

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of using a point of view video modelling intervention strategy on improving the self-care skills of a student with autism. The target skills were handwashing and toothbrushing. A single-subject ABA design was used in this study. Data were collected using a mixed-method approach. The intervention lasted for six weeks. The results of this study indicate that point of view video modelling is an effective instructional tool for improving handwashing and toothbrushing skills for a student with autism. Moreover, the participant was able to generalise handwashing and toothbrushing skills in two different settings. Implications of this study include the importance of utilising point of view video modelling in daily classroom practice to teach students with autism self-care skills.  Pages 862 to 880


The Effect of Psychological Empowerment on Employee Performance

Rashida Mat Rania, Normy Rafida Abdul Rahmanb, Nurul Aqilah Mohd Yusakc, aPost Graduate Centre (PGC), GSM & SGS, b,cFaculty of Business Management and Professional Studies, Management and Science University, University Drive Seksyen 13, Shah Alam, 40100, Malaysia, Email: ahafizida2708@gmail.com, bnormy_rafida@msu.edu.my, cNurul_aqilah@msu.edu.my

The study investigated the relationship between the four dimensions of psychological empowerment between employees’ performance in the automotive after sales service in Malaysia. In line with self-determination theory, employees have intrinsic motivation when they are genuinely happy and enjoy while delivering the job in achieving the goals. Employees feel empowered when experiencing feelings of meaningful, competence, self-determination and impact. The data was collected through survey instrument from the sample size of 241 employees representing the employees working in the automotive after sales service. Statistical software SPSS version 26 was used for correlation and regression analysis. The result of the study shows that meaning, competence, self-determination and impact found significantly correlated and predicted employees’ performance. It is expected that the findings of this study will contribute to the literature and knowledge of Human Resource practitioners especially in the automotive retail industry. Pages 881 to 899

The Measurement of Dynamic Tension Fluctuation in a Flat Knitting Machine

Waqar Iqbala, Yaming Jiangb, Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiquic, Raza Ahmedd, Qi Yi_Xonge, Syed Umer Afzalf, Dilini srinika wijerathne gunasekarag, Rahid Hussainh, a,b,d,e,f,g,hSchool of Textile Science and Engineering, Tiangong University, Tianjin 300387, P.R. of China, cDepartment of Textile Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270, Pakistan, Email: jiangyaming@tjpu.edu.cn

Knitting is a dynamic process where tension fluctuates at each point. The tension fluctuates from one point to another on a flat knitting machine as the yarn runs over a large setup. The tension variation is dependent on factors such as yarn type, and knitting structures in different zones of the flat knitting machine etc. This paper evaluates the tension fluctuation for diverse yarn type, and knitting structures in different zones of the flat knitting machine and concludes that tension is at the lowest level when the yarn unwinds from the cone (i.e., back zone), which gradually increases in the middle zone and is at the highest level in the knitting zone. Moreover, yarn type also plays an important role in the tension variation during knitting. The wool yarn shows the maximum value of 18.843cN while the viscose yarn indicated the minimum value of 9.849cN. The tension variation within the yarns is 47%. The knitting stitches such as rib gives the maximum tension fluctuation with the value of 15.612cN, whereas the plain knitting indicated the lowest value of 12.630cN, although the tension variation within the stitch type is 19%. The tension in the knitting zone found the highest value of 25.94cN which is 89% higher than the back zone, whilst the tension rise from back zone to middle zone is 80%. Pages 900 to 911

A Survey of Linguistic Considerations of Assessment of Communication Disorders by Speech Language Therapists/Pathologists in Pakistan

1Hina Noor, Ph. D, 2 Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Ph. D, 3Farkhunda Rasheed Ch., Ph. D, 4Shamaila Hamid, 5Iffat Nawaz, 6Jahan Ara Shams, Ph.D, 1 Lecturer, Department of Special Education, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2Lecturer, Department of Secondary Teacher Education, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan, 3Assistant Professor, Department of Education Planning Policy Studies and Leadership, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan. 4MPhil Scholar, Department of Special Education, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan. 5M.Phil Scholar, Department of Special Education, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan. 6Assistant Professor in Education, Punjab Higher Education Department. Email: 1hina.noor@aiou.edu.pk, 2mzafar.iqbal@aiou.edu.pk, 3farkhunda.rasheed@aiou.edu.pk, 4shamailabrar1@gmail.com, 5Iffatnawaz5@gmail.com, 6jahanarashams@gmail.com

The foundation of success of speech therapy plans depends on appropriate assessment procedures. Assessment for communication disorders must be carried out in the subjects’ native language in order to be reliable and valid. The survey was designed to explore the screening/assessment/diagnosis tools currently used by speech and language therapists (SLTs) in Pakistan and to evaluate the psychometric properties of these tools in terms of their linguistic appropriateness. Two questionnaires were constructed. Questionnaire 1 (Cronbach alpha, 0.80) included 46 items about the demographic variables and tools being used by SLTs for screening/assessment/diagnosis. Questionnaire 2 consisted of 18 items about psychometric properties of the tools used by SLTs.  Validity of both questionnaires was established through pilot testing. 242 SLTs practicing in institutes, hospitals, clinics and rehabilitation settings were contacted through electronic and postal media. 103 SLTs (16 male and 87 female) participated in the study. 103 screening/assessment/diagnosis tools were found to be used by SLTs. Only 6 assessment tools were found to be linguistically appropriate. Either assessment was carried out in the patients’ second language or English language or self-translated Urdu words were used during assessment of patient’s linguistic competence. The study provided evidence of inappropriate assessment procedures used by the majority of SLTs in Pakistan and highlighted the need for future research regarding development of linguistically appropriate assessment tools. Development of either new assessment tools in national/regional language or a validated Urdu version of the tools is required urgently. Pages 912 to 933

The Effect of Social Media on Making Investment Decisions for Investors in Amman Financial Market

Dr. Sahel Ali Al Atoom1, Dr. Khaled Khalaf Alafi2, Dr. Mazen Mohammad Al-Fedawi3 1Brothers Foundation for Studies and Research, Amman, Jordan, 2Associate professor, Department of Management, The World Islamic Sciences & Education University, Amman, Jordan 3Associate Professor, Middle East University, Amman, Jordan.

The study aimed to identify the impact of the new media on making investment decisions for investors in Amman Financial Market, by reviewing the most important economic and financial data and information that can be transferred by the new media, identify the most important and most new media influencing the decisions of investors in Amman Financial Market, and identify the impact of new media on investors' decision-making in Amman Financial Market. The analytical descriptive approach was relied upon, by designing a questionnaire and distributing it to the study sample consisting of 150 investors in Amman Financial Market who were randomly selected, and using the appropriate statistical methods represented by iterations, percentages, variance testing, regression and correlation test, in addition to the stability factor (Cronbach - alpha). The study reached a set of results, the most important of which are: Investors in Amman Financial Market use social media with (60%) and specialized websites with (40%) to obtain economic and financial information and data that helps them in making and rationalizing their investment decisions. Facebook is the most social media site used by investors in Amman Financial Market to obtain opinions, comments, and advice regarding investment decision-making with (51.3%). Amman Financial Market Website (ASE) is one of the most specialized websites on which investors in Amman Financial Market rely on to obtain information, data and news related to their investment decision, with (78.0%). There is a statistically significant effect of new media applications and forms represented by specialized websites and social media on investment decision-making and rationalization.  Pages 934 to 960


Political Communication: A Case Study of Joko Widodo - Ma'ruf Amin Victory in the 2019 Indonesian Presidential Election

Sutrisno1, Taufik2, 1Department of Communications Science, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Pasundan Bandung, 2Correspondent Author; PhD. Student of Political Science, Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; Department of International Relations, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Pasundan Bandung. Email: 1Sutrisno@unpas.ac.id 2Taufik@unpas.ac.id

Indonesia's fourth presidential and vice-presidential election will be held post-reform. Indonesia's success in carrying out direct elections by the people after the reform became a history for Indonesia and world democracy. As the only democratic country in the world with ethnic, religious and cultural diversity, Indonesia means every elite or candidate, both legislative and President, must understand the characteristics of the voters very well. So, sometimes the presidential candidates who will lead Indonesia need extra energy to understand the characteristics of the people in each region. Even in winning elections, each candidate has a different style and way of communicating politics, and they have a unique strategy in communicating. Symbolic communication is not infrequently used to get attention and get maximum votes when voting. However, every election is always coloured by the spread of hoax news and information to gain the people's attention and voice. In the 2019 presidential election, incumbent candidate Joko Widodo chose K.H Ma'ruf Amin as a companion and who was also considered appropriate for winning. This research uses qualitative methods and phenomenology as a tool of analysis; this article seeks to discuss and discover the communication style used by the Jokowi - Ma'ruf couple to win the 2019 presidential election. Pages 961 to 971

The Effect of the Problem-Based Learning Model on Learning Outcomes in the Course of Learning Strategy at Sttiaa Pacet Mojokerto

Dwi Lestariningsih1*, Luthfiyah Nurlaela2, Andi Mariono3, GP Harianto4, 1Pascasarjana Teknologi Pendidikan, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, 2,3Dosen Pascasarjana Teknologi Pendidikan, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, 4Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Excelsius. Email: 1*dwi.sttiaa@gmail.com

The purposes of this research are (1) to test the differences in the learning outcomes of the students’ concepts of applying problem-based learning and direct instruction study models on learning strategy course at STTIAA Pacet, Mojokerto, (2) to test the differences in the results of learning in understanding    the concept of students between those who have high self-regulated learning and low self-regulated learning in the learning strategy course at STTIAA Pacet, Mojokerto, (3) knowing the interaction between problem-based learning and student self-regulated learning models on the learning outcomes in the learning strategy course at STTIAA Pacet Mojokerto. This research is using a factorial design with a 2x2 design. It is conducted at STTIAA Pacet, Mojokerto. The number of the research subjects is 40 students, 20 students for the control class, and 20 students for the experimental class. This research  uses three kinds of variables, an independent variable, a moderator variable, and a dependent variable. The independent variable is the treatment of this study, which is the application of a problem-based learning model. The moderator variable is self-regulated learning and the dependent variable is the learning outcomes. Two data techniques were used; observation and test. Observation is used to determine the activities of lecturers and students. Tests are used to determine the learning outcomes. The data analysis techniques used are the normality test, homogeneity, and hypothesis testing that is used in a univariate bivariate analysis of variance. The results of the analysis and research are as follows: (1) the result of the univariate analysis of variance shows that sig counts 0,000 < 0,05, and it can be concluded that there is a difference in the learning outcomes between students who have applied the problem-based learning and direct instruction on the learning strategy course at STTIAA Pacet Mojokerto. (2) the result of the univariate bivariate analysis of variance shows sig. counts SRL 0.166 > 0.05, and it can be concluded that there is no difference in the result of learning outcomes of students between having high self-regulated learning and low self-regulated learning in the learning strategy course at STTIAA Pacet Mojokerto. (3) the result of the univariate bivariate analysis variance shows sig. counts method * SRL 0.131 > 0.05, and it can be concluded that there is no interaction between problem-based learning and self-regulated learning model towards the learning outcomes in a learning strategy course at STTIAA Pacet Mojokerto. Pages 990 to 1011

The Effect of Artificial Intelligence Systems on the Performance of the Forensic Accountant in the Jordanian Public Shareholding Companies from the Viewpoint of the Jordanian Audit Offices

Samer Akour1, Ala Jaber Matarneh2, Osama Abdul-Munim Ali3, Jamal AL Afeef4, 1,2,4Associate Professor, 3Professor,  1The world Islamic Sciences and Education University (W.I.S.E) – Faculty of Business and Finance-Amman-Jordan, 2The world Islamic Sciences and Education University (W.I.S.E) – Faculty of Business and Finance-Amman -Jordan, 3.4Jerash University – Faculty of  Business -Accounting department -Jerash-Jordan, Email: 1samerokour1@gmail.com, 2alaamatarneh@googlemail.com, 3al_osama@yahoo.com (Corresponding Author), 4alafeefjamal@yahoo.com

This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of artificial intelligence systems on the performance of the forensic accountant in Jordanian public shareholding companies. The study population was represented by the 477 external auditors practising the profession of auditing until the end of 2019, according to the statistics of the Association of Certified Public Accountants. Based on the current difficulty and cost of the comprehensive survey, a simple random sample was taken, which was determined based on the (Krejcie& Morgan) table. The study sample included 213 auditors. The SPSS program was used to analyse the study data, as descriptive statistics measures and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to test the presence of multiple linear correlation phenomenon as well as the use of multiple linear regression analysis and stepwise regression to test the study hypotheses. The most important results of the study were evident in the presence of a significant effect of the dimensions of artificial intelligence on the performance of the forensic accountant in the Jordanian companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange, when studying the effect of each of them separately. As for the most important recommendations, the forensic accountant in Jordan reliance should be more on advanced systems in the operation of neural network technology, and the use of modern hardware, computer equipment and software programs that rely on neural network technologies in order to follow the progress of work and tasks according to his goals. Pages 1012 to 1033

The US Military Drawdown from Afghanistan and the Role of Regional Dynamics in the Peace Process

Dr. Muhammad Tariqa, Dr. Aziz Ur Rahmanb, Imtiaz Ahmadc, Dr. Muhammad Kashifd, Dr. Muhammad Ayaze, aLecturer Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra, bAssistant Professor Department of IR & Politcal Science, Qurtaba University Peshawar, cAssistant Professor, Department of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Lower Dir., Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, dSuperintendent, D.R. (E), University of Karachi, eChairman Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra, Email: amuhammadtariq@hu.edu.pk, bdr.azizku@gmail.com, cdostisw@hotmail.com, ddrkashif@uok.edu.pk

This paper focusses on the military drawdown of the US forces from Afghanistan and role of regional dynamics in the peace process. The main focus rests on three research objectives encompassing the drawdown of the US forces from Afghanistan, output of the US-Taliban talks followed by the resultant intra-Afghan talks, and the role played by the regional dynamics in the peace process in Afghanistan. The US forces are about to leave Afghanistan in the wake of February 29, 2020 US-Taliban talks whereby efforts are underway for the restoration of normalcy in the country to the pre-9/11 scenario. The regional powers are playing their due role in withdrawal of the foreign troops since each of them have their vested interest in Afghanistan. Theoretical framework for the study is provided by the Game Theory which sets the foundation of the study.  The basic component of this theory is the Assurance Game which emphasises that actors can achieve successful results only if they can cooperate and coordinate with one another. An important aspect of this theory is the cooperative and non-cooperative dimensions which lay the foundation of this framework. The cooperative dimension rests upon the phenomena when the coalition partners or groups work in coordination to the effect when the resultant outcomes are known. It also provides a game between the coalition partners and not between the individuals. The outcome of the US and coalition partners were achieved, hence they decided to enter into negotiations with the Taliban and Afghan government and withdraw their forces from Afghanistan. Pages 1034 to 1047

Comparative Study of Coverage of Violence against Women in Print Media

Haseeb ur Rehman Warricha, Raazia Israrb, Zaeem Yasinc, aAssociate Professor, Department of Arts and Media, Foundation University Islamabad, bMS Scholar, Department of Psychology, International Islamic University, Islamabad, cAssistant Professor, Department of Mass Communication, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Email: aHaseebwaraich79@gmail.com

This study is designed to check and investigate the assertion by various research studies worldwide that violence against women is rarely reported in the mainstream media. The findings of the current study make the above assertion abundantly clear. The study contently analysed the nature, extent and treatment of the violence against women in three Pakistani elite newspapers including Dawn, The News and The Nation. The issue got minimum coverage in the press. The stories reported were placed in the lower portions of city pages and only physical violence was reported and other manifestation of violence were ignored. The three newspapers also differed from each other in various forms while reporting the issue. Pages 1048 to 1062

Incremental Innovation through Adhocracy Culture: Mediating Evidence from the Intellectual Capital Triad

Razia Muneera , Muhammad Fiazb*, Amir Ikramc, a,cInstitute of Business & Management, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, bDepartment of Management Sciences, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan, *Corresponding Author

Adhocracy culture aims to build a dynamic workplace by extending learning and creativity. The study empirically investigates the relationship between adhocracy culture and incremental innovation through intervention of  the intellectual capital triad. The snowball reference-based sampling technique was used, and data was collected from 160 IT professionals. Partial least square (PLS) and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for analysis of measurement and structural model. The findings reveal that adhocracy culture has a significant impact on intellectual capital which leads to incremental innovation. Moreover, it is suggested that the intellectual capital triad partially mediates the association between the adhocracy culture and incremental innovation. The research also ponders how the individual intellectual capital triad impacts the incremental innovation and it is evident that all three dimensions of intellectual capital, namely human, structural and social, exhibited a positive relationship with incremental innovation. The study offers practical implications for policy makers and senior managers in the domain of technology and knowledge-based organisations. The managers should consider the importance of adhocracy culture in facilitating knowledge creation and sharing, which ultimately results in sustainable competitive advantage through incremental innovation. Pages 1063 to 1080

Countering Counterfeits in Pakistan

Dr. Yasir Kamala, Dr. Usman Ghanib, Azhar khanc, a,bInstitute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, cIslamia College, Peshawar

The main purpose of this study is to understand the behavioral and psychological factors that influence consumers who purchased counterfeited products in Pakistan. The study has highlighted different factors which are considered the contextual determinants of buying counterfeited products. Two steps methodology was used in this research to highlight different contextual determinants of purchase behavior of counterfeited products. The Ajzen (1991) theory of planned Behavior, the questionnaire of Lee and Ho (2004), and De Matos et al (2007) were used to collect data and analyzed it for exploratory and conformity factor analysis by using the techniques of PCA and SEM. The study has revealed that people buy counterfeited products because of peer pressure, financial constraints, ease of availability, lack of societal behaviors and lack of awareness of the associated risks. Further the financial constraints and attitude of the consumers triggered the willingness to buy the counterfeited products. The study found that counterfeit products have eaten into 10–15% of the sales of the original products in Pakistan, and that these products are mainly being counterfeited in Peshawar, Lahore, and Karachi. The paper is financed by the higher education commission of Pakistan through its NRPU program. To the best of our knowledge the paper is unique in presenting counterfeit purchase factors, which is then regressed and confirm against Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned buying behavior and based on the results a new model for future research is also proposed. To create an effective anti-counterfeiting regime, the government must devise a strong legal structure that encompasses law enforcement related to customs, civil, criminal and digital crimes. The brands manager shall work on consumers’ purchase attitude, societal norms, cost of products, grey markets and communication of hazardous associated with counterfeited products. To decrease counterfeit use legislative policies need to be designed and implemented in every business activity across the country with the help of law enforcement agencies. Pages 1081 to 1113

An Investigation on Thematic Patterns and Progression in Two Short Stories

Nguyen Thu Hanh, Military Science Academy, Hanoi, Viet Nam, Email: nguyenthuhanh09@gmail.com ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2061-9586

In the current paper, the principles of the Theme-Rheme theory will be employed to conduct a comparative study of the stylistic and communicative purposes of two short stories written by Olga Masters, in an attempt to uncover the values encoded in representing the two male protagonists of these two stories. The paper starts by introducing the stories as research texts, and then provides a brief overview of the Theme-Rheme theory with focus on Thematic patterns and progression. Following this, the texts are broken into clauses and a detailed analysis of the clauses is carried out to reflect the images of two main characters of the stories. Finally, the main results of this analysis are reviewed to highlight the similarities and differences in style and structure employed in these two stories by the author Olga Masters and how she portrays reality. Pages 1114 to 1130

Corporate Environmental Performance and the Choice of Export Mode – Based on the Theory of Heterogeneous Firm Trade

Cuihong Yaoa, Alisha Ismailb, Noor Azura Azmanc, a School of Economics and Management, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, Maoming 525000, China, a,b,cDepartment of International Business, School of International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok 06010, Malaysia

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/15672

Heterogeneous firm trade theory holds that firms' productivity is closely related to firms' export mode and Corporate Environmental Performance (CEP). CEP as one of the important elements associated with firms' productivity, has a significant impact on firms' export mode. The objective of the paper is to assess the enterprises with import and export business in Maoming City. Primary data was used to obtain data, while binary logistic regression analysis was used to analyse the data to determine the influence of CEP on export mode. The results show that the CEP has a positive impact on the export mode. Furthermore, results show that enterprises with better CEP are more inclined to choose the direct export mode, and vice versa. This result is consistent with the theory of heterogeneous firm trade. The study recommends that the Chinese government should give full consideration to the export mode of enterprises when making export policies and make full use of CEP's positive influence on the export mode to promote the internationalisation strategy of enterprises and realise the maximisation of enterprise value. Pages 1131 to 1146

Pedagogical Shift: Faculty Insights about E-Teaching Barriers during COVID Pandemic

Inayatullah Kakepotoa, Quratulain Talpurb, Irfan Ahmed Memonc ,  Imtiaz Ali Halepotod, Khuda Bux Jalbani e, aDepartment of English, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering Science & Technology, Nawabshah, bMehran University of Engineering &Technology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Campus Khairpur, cDepartment of City & Regional Planning, Mehran University of Engineering & Technology, Jamshoro , dDepartment of Computer Systems Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering Science & Technology, Nawabshah, eRiphah Institute of Systems Engineering, Riphah International University,Islamabad,Email:akinayat@quest.edu.pk,bquratulain@muetkhp.edu.pk,cirfan.ahmed@faculty.muet.edu.pk,dhalepoto@quest.edu.pk,ebux.khuda@gmail.com

The rationale of this study was exploring faculty insights about online teaching barriers that they faced during the pandemic.  Respondents had experience of a full semester e-teaching during the first wave of COVID-19. Google Forms questionnaire was the data collection tool and the study was quantitative in nature. The method and mode of data collection was questionnaire link that was posted on various WhatsApp groups owned by university teachers. University faculties pertaining to all disciplines of academics were invited for participation. One hundred and nine (109) faculty members participated in this survey. During the data collection period the faculties were away from campus due to second wave of Coronavirus in Pakistan. SPSS software was used for data analysis and data was generated in percentages against each variable included in the questionnaire. Findings demonstrated that faculty acceptance of e-learning technologies, faculty development towards online technology, lack of ownership, engaging students online, administrative support, and load shedding of electricity were barriers that impeded online teaching in universities of Pakistan. Pages 1147 to 1160

Exploring E-Learning Barriers of University Students during COVID 19 Pandemic

Inayatullah Kakepotoa, Irfan Ahmed Memonb, Imtiaz Ali Halepotoc, Quratulain Talpurd, Khuda Bux Jalbanie, aDepartment of English, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science & Technology, Nawabshah, bDepartment of City & Regional Planning, Mehran University of Engineering & Technology, Jamshoro, cDepartment of Computer Systems Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering Science & Technology, Nawabshah, dMehran University of Engineering &Technology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Campus Khairpur, eRiphah Institute of Systems Engineering, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Email: akinayat@quest.edu.pk, birfan.ahmed@faculty.muet.edu.pk,chalepoto@quest.edu.pk,dquratulain@muetkhp.edu.pk, ebux.khuda@gmail.com

The COVID-19 pandemic compelled universities to switch from physical modes of teaching to online modes. This study aims to discover online learning problems of students enrolled in Public Sector Universities of Pakistan during the pandemic. Participants had undergone a complete online semester during the worldwide disaster.  Information technology, computer science, mathematics and statistics, English language and literature students were participants of this study. A Google Forms questionnaire was used for data collection. It was the best fit and most feasible method for this study because students were away from campus due to the second wave of COVID. Students enrolled in all four degree programs were invited to participate in this survey. One hundred and twenty (120) students participated. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used for computing percentages. Findings revealed that ‘poor computer literacy, load shedding of electricity, slow internet speed, expensive internet packages and lack of interaction between student-teacher’ were online learning problems of learners in E-teaching.  Results may guide and assist in improving online teaching in Pakistan. Additionally, they may assist academics and administrators formulating effective policies for developing effective online education mechanisms in Pakistan. Pages 1161 to 1174

Higher Education Commission COVID Policy Guidelines and Online Readiness of Universities of Pakistan  

Inayatullah Kakepotoa, Khuda Bux Jalbanib, Quratulain Talpurc, Irfan Ahmed Memond, Imtiaz Ali Halepotoe, aDepartment of English, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering Science & Technology, Nawabshah, bRiphah Institute of Systems Engineering, Riphah International University, Islamabad, cMehran University of Engineering &Technology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Campus Khairpur, dDepartment of City & Regional Planning, Mehran University of Engineering & Technology, Jamshoro, eDepartment of Computer Systems Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering Science & Technology,Nawabshah.Email:akinayat@quest.edu.pk,bbux.khuda@gmail.com,cquratulain@muetkhp.edu.pk,dirfan.ahmed@faculty.muet.edu.pk,ehalepoto@quest.edu.pk

The COVID pandemic forced closure of academic institutions around the globe. E-teaching pedagogy changed traditional modes of teaching and learning which is very popular among teachers and learners. The goal of this research was to gauge Higher Education Commission (HEC) COVID policy guidelines for the wellbeing of students, faculty and staff and E-teaching readiness of universities of Pakistan for commencing E-classes. Empirical mixed methods were employed. COVID policy guideline documents displayed on Higher Education Commission (HEC) website were reviewed in depth to draw outcomes. Moreover, Higher Education Data Repository (HEDR) quantitative data was used assessing online readiness of universities of Pakistan. Data revealed student concerns about E-teaching barriers e.g. connectivity problems, faculty concerns, quality instruction, evaluation quality, and fee concerns. Faculty concerns showed that teachers were unwilling to visit universities for delivering online lectures and preparation of tutorials. Results further revealed that public and private sector universities implemented an E-Teaching roadmap given by HEC successfully except for a few who lagged behind in this dimension. Surprisingly, universities that enjoyed good academic and research track record failed in adopting E-Teaching pedagogy. This study proposes that the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan should facilitate universities of Pakistan to receive benefit from E-Teaching practices which is an indispensable part of academics in this modern age of information technology. Case to case studies of universities have been made resolving E-Teaching problems confronting them. Findings would assist and guide Vice-Chancellors/Rectors of Universities and policy makers working in Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for framing future effective policies for developing sound E- teaching mechanisms comparable to advanced universities of the world. Pages 1175 to 1195

Zakat Knowledge Unified Management (KUM) System: Connecting the Organisation Diversity in Indonesia

Muharman Lubis, School of Industrial Engineering, Telkom University, Indonesia, Email: muharmanlubis@telkomuniversity.ac.id

Mandatory charity or zakat is a fundamental approach in Islamic tenets to deal with social problems like crimes and poverty in the society by dividing the percentage of wealth source to the entitled recipient affordably. Collaborative research conducted by the National Zakat Agency (BAZNAS) and the Bogor Agricultural Institute (IPB) estimates that the potential for zakat harvesting in Indonesia could reach around 217 trillion rupiahs annually, which has yet to be achieved. This study attempts to investigate the problems and challenges raised in adopting a KMSLC (Knowledge Management System Life Cycle) to solve zakat management system problems in Indonesia. The aim of this research is to find an insight to overcome the conventional approach by zakat institutional and to provide the balancing mechanism to manage every phase within the zakat management in the fastest and smartest way. Because this research has been designed to be an exploratory investigation to develop a framework, this article uses a qualitative method, by using the empirical support in an historical background, and a holistic view of zakat mechanism and interviews. Pages 1196 to 1217

Important Determinants of Targeting the Poorest for Social Safety Nets: A Case Study of Pakistan

Asna Mubashraa, Muhammad Ali Ammerb, aIncharge Department of Textile Design, University College of Art & Design, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, bDirector General Quaid-e-Azam Academy for Educational Development, Punjab, Pakistan

Many social safety nets are functioning in developing countries for designing, monitoring, and evaluating interventions to decrease poverty and aid households to deal with risks. A main concern related to these interventions is the execution of mechanisms to guarantee that benefits are poured to the poorest and most at risk individuals. Although much is on paper on targeting anti-poverty interventions,  these strategies are usually focused on any one type of social safety net program, hence hold lesser value to developing country governments. It is reality written on the wall that there are no magic bullets to eradicate global or local poverty instantly, but consistent efforts are needed to bring into the limelight the importance of careful designing and implementation to maximise the benefits of interventions for the poor and vulnerable. This paper seeks to fill this information gap. It assesses data of poverty indicators from Pakistan as a case study for suggesting a better and more effective manner of targeting the really poor from the population. This information will help in development work on the designing, implementation, and effectiveness of these social safety nets to focus benefits on the correctly targeted poor. Pages 1218 to 1235

Determinants of Youth Labour Absorption in Indonesia

Suryadia, Emi Syariefb, Yuniarti Tri Suwadjic, Ardhian Kurniawatid, Nurlia Rahmatikae, a,b,c,d,ePuslitbang Ketenagakerjaan, Kementerian Ketenagakerjaan, Jl. Jenderal Gatot Subroto Kavling 51

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/15817

This study aims to determine how: the provincial minimum wage affects youth labour absorption in Indonesia; the regional economic conditions affect youth labour absorption in Indonesia; the level of education affects youth labour absorption in Indonesia; the effects of elderly people working on youth labour absorption in Indonesia; and the type of work elderly people do affects youth labour absorption in Indonesia. The data used in this study is secondary data from the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS), namely Sakernas of 2008-2018 with panel data type. Data was analysed using panel data regression analysis. The results show that several variables have a significant effect on employment opportunities for youth labour, namely the Provincial Minimum Wage (UMP), the Basic Education Level of Young Workers, the Secondary Education Level of Young Workers, and the Higher Education Level of Young Workers. These mean that there is no trade off between elderly and young workers. It could be because of the job positions in these two age groups are likely to be different, so that there is no positions’ substitution for elderly and young workers, and the positions entered by these elderly workers are positions that require a fairly high work experience. Pages 1236 to 1250

How Do IT Competence and Business Competence Bring Organizational Agility? An Evidence from Pakistan

Majid Alia, Muhammad Munirb, Rauf I Azamc, aAssistant Professor, Hailey College of Commerce, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan, bIPFP Fellow, Department of of Management & Administrative Sciences, University of Narowal, Paksitan, cVice Chancellor, Punjab University of Technology, Rasul, Paksiatn, Email: amajid.hcc@pu.edu.pk, bmuhammad.munir@uon.edu.pk, crauf.i.azam@gmail.com

Importance of digitization was rushed during COVID-19 pandemic than ever before in the current or past century. Embracing information technology (IT) enables the organizations to achieve organizational agility. Current study was aimed at evaluating impact of digitization and business competence on organizational agility in Pakistan. This study targeted manufacturing, information technology, banking, finance, insurance, and telecommunications firms to check current status of business firms regarding adoption of IT. Moreover, current study tried to probe status of IT adoption and business competence owned by the public, private, and foreign owned firms. This was a cross-sectional study in which data was collected from the employees of business firms operating in the capital city of Punjab province. The data was collected from 200 employees through a self-administrated questionnaire. The results revealed a direct significant impact of IT competence and business competence on organizational agility of the organizations. Current study also describes various research limitations and implications for future research. Pages 1251 to 1262

Underemployment in View of Human Resource Management: Situational Analysis Scenario of Well-Educated People in Pakistan

Dr. Muhammad Jawada*, Dr. Munazza Nazb, Mr. Nauman Waheedc, Dr. Sohail Rizand, Mr. Muhammad Aftab Shamsie, aPost Doc, Ph.D, Department of Commerce, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan. *Corresponding Author, bPost Doc, Ph.D, Department of Mathematics, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan. c,dDepartment of Commerce, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan. eUniversity Institute of Management Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Email: a*muhammad_jawad85@yahoo.com, bmunazzanaz@fjwu.edu.pk, cnauman_acc@yahoo.co.uk, dsohaildotrizwan@gmail.com, echaftabshamsi@gmail.com

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/151071

Underemployment is related with both business management and human resource management. Since situational and demanding conditions have considerable potential to make critical impact on both behavior and performance of people. The purpose of this study is to define the key variables of underemployment and both the causes and consequences of unemployment in the context of Pakistan.In this research, we trying to find the pre and post factors of underemployment. In this research situational analysis, descriptive Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis is used. The data is collected through questionnaires from all over Pakistan. The sample size is consisting of 10000 individuals and response was 8691. The research found from results that Job opportunities, corruption, inflation and political instability have negative (inverse) impact on underemployment and terrorism has positive (increasing) impact on underemployment. Underemployment has negative impact on job opportunities, inflation, corruption; political instability and positive effect on terrorism. Meanwhile Criminal activities, frustration; suicide and brain drain have negative impact on underemployment. Pages 1263 to 1279

Organizational Learning Capacity as sustainable Competitive Advantage: Role of Leader’s Emotional Intelligence and Resistance to Change on Organizational Learning Capacity

Dr. Muhammad Jawada*, Dr. Saqib Anwar Siddiquib, Dr. Munazza Nazc, Mr. Nauman Waheedd, Dr. Sohail Rizane, Mr. Muhammad Aftab Shamsif, aPost Doc, Ph.D, Department of Commerce, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan. *Corresponding Author, bDepartment of Leadership and Management Studies, National Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan, cPost Doc, Ph.D, Department of Mathematics, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan. d,eDepartment of Commerce, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan. fUniversity Institute of Management Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Email: a*muhammad_jawad85@yahoo.com, bsaqib.phd@gmail.com cmunazzanaz@fjwu.edu.pk, dnauman_acc@yahoo.co.uk, esohaildotrizwan@gmail.com, fchaftabshamsi@gmail.com

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/151072

This research study is based on the investigation and validation of Organizational Learning Capacity with regards to leaders in educational sector as source of Competitive Advantage to the Higher Education Institutions and testing the impact of leader’s Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Resistance to Change to enhance Organizational Learning Capacity (OLC). This study can be the hallmark for the HEI’s for gaining competitive advantage through their human capital.The results shows that EI has significant contribution towards the OLC and when measured together with the trait of resistance to change the results significantly transformed which suggest that RTC negatively and significantly affect the relationship between EI and OLC therefore, to control and reduce the aspect of resistance to change by enhancing and investing in the trait of Emotional Intelligence of the individuals and leaders is suggested to gain the benefits of OLC to become superior in the industry. Pages 1280 to 1301

Enterprise Risk Management and Firm Performance: A Financial Sector Analysis of Pakistan

Dr. Muhammad Jawada*, Dr. Munazza Nazb, Mr. Nauman Waheedc, Dr. Sohail Rizand, Mr. Muhammad Aftab Shamsie, aPost Doc, Ph.D, Department of Commerce, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan. *Corresponding Author, bPost Doc, Ph.D, Department of Mathematics, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan. c,dDepartment of Commerce, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan. eUniversity Institute of Management Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Email: a*muhammad_jawad85@yahoo.com, bmunazzanaz@fjwu.edu.pk, cnauman_acc@yahoo.co.uk, dsohaildotrizwan@gmail.com, echaftabshamsi@gmail.com

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/151073

Enterprise faces many kinds of risks and therefore the attention differs across institutions and organizations. Risk as an event that will influence the performance of a corporation as well as environmental risks, moral problems and social problems. Furthermore, risk or uncertainty as a broad and well-organized structure for managing different kinds of risks like credit, operational, marketplace, operative, economical or capital risks and risk transmission to maximize organization worth. The research analysis the different performance indicator of firm, enterprise risk management and their effect on firm performance. The secondary data on Commercial Banks, Foreign Banks, Investment Banks, Insurance Companies, Development Finance Institutions (DFIs), Leasing Companies, Mutual Funds, Modaraba Companies and Housing Finance Companies are collected from Financial Statement Analysis (FSA) from 2008 to 2016 provided by Statistics and DWH Department of State Bank, Pakistan. This study used Debt to Asset Ratio (DTA) as dependent variable and dummy of firm performance while Cost to Income Ratio (CTI), Enterprise Risk Management (ERM), Equity to Asset Ratio (ETA), Enterprise Value to Asset Value (EVTAV), Leverage (LVG), Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) and Return on Equity (ROE) are used as independent variables. The research found long run relationship among the variables. OLS Regression Test that Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) implementation, Equity to Asset Ratio (ETA), Enterprise Value to Asset Value (EVTAV), Leverage (LVG), Return on Capital Employed (ROCE), Return on Equity (ROE) have significant effect on performance of financial firms in positive direction while Cost to Income Ratio (CTI) have insignificant impact on performance of financial firms. Pages 1302 to 1318
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